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Mast Cell Tumor Dog:Causes, Treatment, and Related Symptoms

Dog Medicine
Mastocytoma is a common skin tumor in dogs, which is derived from dermal mast cells.

Causes of Mast Cell Tumor Dog

The etiology of mastocytoma is not clear. Mast cells can release a large number of vasoactive amines, mainly histamine and heparan. These extraluminal effects lead to gastric ulcers and coagulopathy. Touching the tumor will trigger the release of amines and local edema, inflammation, and congestion.

Mast Cell Tumor Dog Symptoms

A well-differentiated mastocytoma will present with the classic lesion, which is a hard, depilated bulge. Poorly differentiated tumors may present with ulceration, bleeding, and edema or with multiple small lesions surrounding the primary tumor. Extrusion of mastocytoma results in a "rheumatic or flushing response" because granules of mast cells release inflammatory mediators, such as heparin and histamine, which cause local tissue hemorrhage and edema, respectively. They usually occur on the trunk, head and legs of dogs, and the tumors are soft or hard, large or small masses or nodules, alopecia areata or extensive hair loss.

Diagnostic Criteria For Mast Cell Tumor Dog

A tentative diagnosis can be made by observation of compression or aspiration smears. In contrast, mastocytoma may sometimes be confused with other round cell tumors or eosinophilic platelets. Special staining methods can be used for some small staining particles, but it needs to be identified by histochemical markers to make a definite diagnosis.

Mast Cell Tumor Dog Treatment

Surgery is the most common method and should be carried out as soon as possible. In order to prevent recurrence, a large area of normal tissue around the tumor can be removed. If complete resection is not possible, radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be selected, or it can be combined with oral amine blocking agents in the treatment of the affected dog.